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An Introduction to Monotheism

Linguistically, Monotheism [in Arabic] is to make something single – make it one. This cannot take place except with a negation and an affirmation, negating the ruling from other than what you want to single out, and affirming the ruling to it. Negation on its own is a nullification, and affirmation on its own does not rule out other partnerships. So for example; a persons monotheism will not be complete until he testifies that there is no deity worthy of worship other than Allaah [La Ilaaha ilallaah] – so he negates the worship of other than Allaah and affirms it to Him only.

The legislated meaning of Monotheism: The Author [1] defined it as:

‘Singling out Allaah, the Glorified, with worship.’

Meaning that you only worship Allaah alone, you do not worship anything in association with Him, rather you only worship Him, in love of Him, Glorifying Him, yearning for His reward and fearing His punishment.

The author, may Allaah have mercy over him, intended the monotheism that Allaah sent the messengers to establish, because this is the type of monotheism that their was deficiency in, and it is the one which people differed with their messengers concerning.

There is a more general definition for monotheism, it is:

‘Singling out Allaah, the Elevated, with what is specific to Him in three things [Lordship, worship and Names and Attributes]:

The First: Monotheism of Lordship (Tawheed ar Rububiyyah):

It is to single out Allaah the Elevated with creation, ownership and the disposing of all affairs. Allaah the Glorified said:

{Allaah is the Creator of all things…} [Az Zumar: 62]

He also said:

{Is there any creator other than Allaah who provides for you from the sky (rain) and the earth? La ilaaha illa Huwa (none has the right to be worshipped but He).} [Faatir: 3]

He said:

{Blessed is He in Whose Hand is the dominion; and He is Able to do all things.} [Al Mulk: 1]

He said:

{Surely, His is the creation and commandment. Blessed is Allaah, the Lord of the 'Alameen (mankind, jinn and all that exists)!}[Al ‘Araaf: 54]

The Second: Monothiesm of Worship [Tawheed al Uluheeyyah]:

It is to single out Allaah the Glorified with worship, by not presenting any form of worship to anything other than Allaah or to seek closeness to anything else as one seeks closeness to Allaah.

The Third: Monotheism in the Names and Attributes [Tawheed al Asmaa was Sifaat]

It is to single out Allaah the Majestic with His Names and Attributes that were mentioned in His Book or in the Sunnah of His Messenger - صلى الله عليه وسلم – by affirming what He Affirmed for Himself and negating what He negated for Himself without distorting them [Tahreef], nullifying their meanings [Ta’teel], delving into how they are [Takyeef], or comparing them with the creation [Tamtheel].

This is the religion that Allaah sent all His messengers with.

[1] Al Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul Wahhaab.

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مقدمة في التوحيد

التوحيد لغة: مصدر وحد يوحد، أي جعل الشيء واحدا، وهذا لا يتحقق إلا بالنفي والإثبات، نفي الحكم عما سوى الموحد، و إثباته له، لأن النفي وحده تعطيل، والإثبات وحده لا يمنع المشاركة. فمثلا لا يتم للإنسان التوحيد حتى يشهد أن لا اله إلا الله فينفي الالوهية عما سوى الله تعالى ويثبتها لله وحده.

وفي الاصطلاح عرف المؤلف – رحمه الله تعالى – التوحيد بقوله (( التوحيد هو إفراد الله تعلى بالعبادة )) أي أن تعبد الله وحده ولا بسركك به شيئا بل تفرده بالعبادة محبة، وتعظيما، ورغبة، ورهبة.

و مراد الشيخ – رحمه الله تعالى – التوحيد الذي بعثت الرسل لتحقيقه لأنه هو الذي حصل الإخلال به والخلاف بين الرسل وأممهم.

و هناك تعريف أعم للتوحيد وهو: ((إفراد الله تعالي بما يختص به)) و أنواعه ثلاث:

الأول : توحيد الربوبية : وهو " إفراد الله سبحانه وتعالى بالخلق، والملك، والتدبير" قال الله تعالى

ألله خالق كل شيء

وقال تعالى

هل من خالق غير الله يرزقكم من السماء والأرض لا إله إلا هو

وقال تعالى

تبارك الذي بيده الملك وهو على كل شيء قدير

وقال تعالى

ألا له الخلق والأمر تبارك الله رب العالمين

الثاني : توحيد الألوهية وهو إفراد الله وتعالى بالعبادة بأن لا يتخذ الإنسان مع الله أحداً يعبده كما يعبد الله ويتقرب إليه كما يتقرب إلي الله تعالى.

الثالث : توحيد الأسماء والصفات وهو " إفراد الله سبحانه وتعالى بأسمائه و صفاته الواردة في الكتابه وسنة رسوله صلى الله عليه وسلم، وذلك بإثبات ما أثبته و نفي ما نفاه من غير تحريف، ولا تعطيل، ومن غير تكييف، ولا تمثيل

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