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العربية

Taking Care of Three Daughters or Sisters

On the authority of Abu Sa’eed al Khudree – may Allaah be pleased with him; the Messenger of Allaah - صلى الله عليه وسلم - said:

Whoever has three daughters, or three sisters, or two daughters, or two sisters and is a beneficent companion to them and fears Allaah concerning them, then for him is Jannah."

[Collected by Abu ‘Eesaa at Tirmidhee who said: Hadeeth Ghareeb - Kitaab al Birr was Silaah, Baab an Nafaqah 'ala al Banaat wal Akhwaat # 1916. The Hadeeth with this exact wording was declared inauthentic by al Albaanee but other authentic wordings support its meaning.]

"Whoever has three daughters or three sisters"

 'Or' here is for variety and not for doubt, likewise is the case for two daughters and two sisters.

"And is beneficent to them and fears Allaah concerning them" meaning in giving them their rights.

"Is beneficent to them"

In the Hadeeth of ‘Uqbah ibn ‘Aamir found in al Adab al Mufrad , there is the addition of "and is patient with them." It is likewise with Ibn Hibbaan who added: "and feeds, gives them to drink and clothes them."

In the Hadeeth of ibn ‘Abbass collected by at Tabaraanee; "spends his wealth on them, gets them married and properly teaches them good behavior."

In the Hadeeth of Jaabir that was collected by Ahmad as well as in al Adab al Mufrad; "teaches them good manners, is merciful to them and assumes responsibility over them." At Tabaraanee added; "and gets them married."

Al Hafidh (ibn Hajar) states after mentioning all these narations; "All of these wordings are combined in the meaning of the word 'Ihsaan - beneficence'

"They would be a barrier from the hell fire for him"

Meaning his reward for this would be protection from the Hellfire, a barrier between him and it.

In this Hadeeth is an emphasis on the rights of girls over the rights of boys because of their weakness, in most cases, concerning handling their interests in contrast to boys due to their physical strength, eloquence in speech and their ability to handle the affairs of their interests in most cases.

The scholars differed concerning the beneficence that is directed towards girls, is it restricted to what is obligated or does it surpass that, and what is apparent is the latter.

The condition of beneficence is that it is in accordance to the Islaamic legislation, not in what is in contradiction to it. It appears that the reward mentioned is only attained if the person continues with this beneficence until the girls are no longer in need of him by way of marriage or otherwise.

[Tuhfat al Ahwadhee: 6/34-36. Benefits related to the chain of narrators and the Arabic language have been omitted.]

"No person from my Ummah that takes care of three girls"

Meaning takes responsibility for all their needs including feeding and clothing them.

"or three sisters"

Meaning his sisters

 "and is beneficent towards them"

Meaning takes care of them and in addition to that, is good to them while living with them whereas he does not remind them of his favors upon them, nor does he display discomfort or signs of tiring towards them.

 "except that"

Meaning the reward for doing this for them

"they would be a barrier from the Hellfire from him."

Meaning a protection from entering the Hellfire, because just as he protected them in the life of this world from the lowliness of asking/begging others, and preserving their reputations by preventing them from being in need of others who may lure them into fornication. He would be rewarded a great reward for this.

[Tuhfat al Ahwadhee: 2/625. Benefits related to the chain of narrotors and the Arabic language have been omitted.]

 

On the authority of ibn ‘Abbaas, may Allaah be pleased with him: The Messenger of Allaah - صلى الله عليه وسلم - said:

"…and whoever takes care of three daughters or three sisters and raises them upon good manerisms, is merciful towards them until Allaah makes them independent of him, Allaah would obligate the entrance to Jannah for him.

A man said: 'O Messenger of Allaah, or two?'

He responded: 'or two.'

Even if they said one, he would have said one…"

[Sharh as Sunnah: 13/14]

 

"There is not a person who takes care of three girls and is good to them except that they would be a barrier between him and the fire.

They asked: And two daughters, O Messenger of Allaah?

He responded: Or two.

They asked: And one?

He responded:  And one."

When al Imaam Ahmad, may Allaah have mercy upon him, was told that he was blessed with a daughter he said:

"Prophets had daughters! Prophets had daughters! Prophets, may the Salaat and Salaam be upon them, had daughters! This is the best of prophets, Muhammad - صلى الله عليه وسلم   - and he had four daughters and three sons."

[Sharh Riyaad as Saaliheen: 1/2135] 

 

On the authority of Abu Sa’eed al Khudree, may Allaah be pleased with him:

"Whoever takes care of three girls, raises them with good mannerisms, gets them married and is beneficent towards them, then for him is Jannah."

This is whether they are daughters or sisters, all of this is included in the generality of this Hadeeth. As long as he is the one who is responsible for them, is beneficent towards them, raises them until they reach the age of marriage and gets them married, his reward with Allaah the Mighty is Jannah!

Regarding sisters whose father has passed away, and their brother takes responsibility for them by supporting them and being good to them, this situation enters under the topic of the virtue of one who takes care of an orphan. As for daughters then they are not considered to be orphans, however, there is tremendous reward in being good to them from Allaah the Mighty and Majestic.

[Sharh Sunan Abu Dawood by al Muhaddith ‘Abdul Muhsin al ‘Abbaad]

Al Haafidh stated: "Whoever takes care of three girls" Meaning takes responsibility for them and takes responsibility for their provision.

"and raises them with good mannerisms" meaning with the mannerisms of the Islaamic Legislation as well as educates them.

"and is beneficent to them" Al Manaawee stated: By enjoining ties with them and visiting them after they get married.

"For him is Jannah." Meaning he will enter it with the foremost.

In this Hadeeth is an emphasis of the rights of girls over boys due to their weakness in seeking a means of provision for themselves.

[‘Awn al Ma’bood: 14/38]

 




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English

من عال ثلاث بنات أو مثلهن من الأخوات


عن ‏ ‏أبي سعيد الخدري ‏ ‏قال ‏
‏قال رسول الله ‏ ‏صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ ‏من كان له ثلاث بنات أو ثلاث أخوات أو ابنتان أو أختان فأحسن صحبتهن واتقى الله فيهن فله الجنة ‏
‏قال ‏ ‏أبو عيسى ‏ ‏هذا ‏ ‏حديث غريب ‏

قوله ( من كانت له ثلاثة بنات أو ثلاث أخوات ) أو للتنويع لا للشك وكذا في قوله أو ابنتان أو أختان

قوله ( فأحسن صحبتهن واتقي الله فيهن ) أي في أداء حقوقهن

قوله ( فيحسن إليهن ) وقع في حديث عقبة بن عامر في الأدب المفرد
فصبر عليهن وكذا وقع في بن ماجة زاد وأطعمهن وسقاهن وكساهن

وفي حديث بن عباس عند الطبراني فأنفق عليهن وزوجهن وأحسن أدبهن
وفي حديث جابر عند أحمد وفي الأدب المفرد يؤدبهن ويرحمهن ويكفلهن زاد الطبراني فيه ويزوجهن قال الحافظ في الفتح بعد ذكر هذه الألفاظ وهذه الأوصاف يجمعها لفظ الإحسان

كن له حجابا من النار

أي يكون جزاؤه على ذلك وقاية بينه وبين نار جهنم حائلا بينه وبينها وفيه تأكيد حق البنات لما فيهن من الضعف غالبا عن القيام بمصالح أنفسهن بخلاف الذكور لما فيهم من قوة البدن وجزالة الرأي وإمكان التصرف في الأمور المحتاج إليها في أكثر الأحوال

واختلف في المراد با حسان هل يقتصر به على قدر الواجب أو بما زاد عليه والظاهر الثاني
وشرط الاحسان أن يوافق الشرع لا ما خالفه والظاهر أن الثواب المذكور إنما يحصل لفاعله إذا استمر إلى أن يحصل استغناؤهن بزوج أو غيره

تحفة الأحوذي – المباركفوري: 6/34-36

( ليس أحد من أمتي يعول ثلاث بنات ) له أي يقوم بما يحتجنه من نحو قوت وكسوة ( أو ثلاث أخوات ) له ( فيحسن اليهن ) أي يعولهن ومع ذلك يحسن اليهن في الاقامة بهن بأن لا يمن عليهن ولا يظهر الضجر والملل ونحو ذلك ( الا كن ) أي كان ثواب فعل ذلك معهن ( له سترا من النار ) أي وقاية من دخول جهنم لانه كما سترهن في الدنيا من ذل السؤال وهتك العرض باحتياجهن للغير الذي -ربما جر للزنا جوزى بذلك جزاء وفاقا

تحفة الأحوذي – المباركفوري: 2/625

عن ابن عباس قال : قال رسول الله ( صلى الله عليه وسلم )
من آوى يتيما إلى طعامه وشرابه ، أوجب الله له الجنة البتة ، ومن
عال ثلاث بنات أو مثلهن من الأخوات ، فأدبهن ورحمهن حتى يغنيهن الله ، أوجب الله له الجنة

فقال رجل : يا رسول الله أو اثنتين ؟

قال : أو اثنتين

حتى لو قالوا : وواحدة ، لقال واحدة

شرح السنة ـ للإمام البغوى 13/44

ما من إنسان يكفل ثلاث بنات يحسن إليهن إلا كن حجابا له من النار قالوا وابنتين يا رسول الله قال وابنتين قالوا وواحدة قال وواحدة وكان الإمام أحمد رحمه الله إذا قيل له ولد لك بنت قال ولدت الإناث للأنبياء ولدت الإناث للأنبياء الأنبياء عليهم الصلاة والسلام يولد لهم بنات فهذا أشرف الأنبياء محمد صلى الله عليه وسلم له أربع بنات وله ثلاثة أولاد

شرح رياض الصالحين محمد بن صالح بن محمد العثيمين 1/2135

من عال ثلاث بنات فأدبهن وزوجهن وأحسن إليهن فله الجنة

أورد أبو داود حديث أبي سعيد الخدري رضي الله عنه: (من عال ثلاث بنات فأدبهن وزوجهن وأحسن إليهن فله الجنة) وهذه الثلاث سواء كن بنات له أو أخوات، كل ذلك يدخل تحت عموم الحديث مادام أنه هو القائم عليهن، وقد أحسن إليهن وعالهن حتى بلغن مبلغ الزواج وزوجهن، حصل منه الإحسان إليهن فجزاؤه الجنة عند الله عز وجل. بالنسبة للأخوات اللاتي مات عنهن أبوهن فقام أخوهن بإعالتهن والإحسان إليهن، فهذا يدخل تحت باب في فضل من عال يتيما، أما بنات الرجل فلا يعتبرن يتيمات، ولكن الإحسان إليهن فيه الأجر العظيم والثواب الجزيل من الله سبحانه وتعالى.

الكتاب : شرح سنن أبي داود ـ عبد المحسن العباد 29/200-205

الحافظ في التقريب ( من عال ثلاث بنات ) أي تعهدهن وقام بمؤنتهن ( فأدبهن ) أي بآداب الشريعة وعلمهن
( وأحسن إليهن ) قال المناوي أي بعد الزواج بنحو صلة وزيارة ( فله الجنة ) أي دخوله مع السابقين
فيه تأكيد حق البنات على حق البنين لضعفهن عن الاكتساب

عون المعبود - العظيم آبادي : 14/38


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